Uji Antagonis Jamur Trichoderma, sp. terhadap penyakit bercak daun (Colletotrichum, sp.) di Kecamata

Pada kegiatan eksplorasi  di Desa Batuah KM. 41 Kecamatan Loa Janan ditemukan penyakit bercak daun pada tanaman lada. Sampel penyakit yang di dapat diidentifikasi  oleh petugas pengendali OPT UPTD P2TP dan daun lada yang terdapat penyakit bercak daun di isolasi dari lesi daun lada yang terinfeksi bercak daun. Isolat bercak daun dipelihara dalam media Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) yang kultur kerja nya diperoleh dengan mentransfer potongan miselium isolate ke dalam PDA pada cawan petri dan diinkubasi selama 7 hari dalam suhu ruang. Sedangkan isolat jamur Trichoderma, sp. diperoleh dari koleksi kultur Laboratorium Penyakit UPTD P2TP yang perlakuan nya sama dengan memelihara jamur antagonis dalam media PDA.

Uji aktivitas antagonis dengan metode biakan ganda dilakukan dengan menempatkan potongan miselium jamur antagonis dan jamur patogen berdiameter 5 mm umur 7 hari pada media PDA dalam satu cawan petri yang sama. Posisi masing-masing jamur diatur dengan jarak 3 cm .

Pada pengamatan uji aktivitas antagonis jamur Trichoderma, sp. pada jamur patogen Colletotrichum,sp. dihasilkan bahwa jamur Trichoderma,sp. dapat menghambat pertumbuhan jamur patogen Colletotrichum, sp. dengan persentase penghambatan mencapai  28 – 30 %. Mikroparasitisme jamur Trichoderma, sp. merupakan proses yang kompleks yang terdiri dari beberapa tahap dalam menyerang inangnya. Interaksi awal dari Trichoderma,sp. yaitu dengan cara membelokan hifanya membelok ke arah jamur inangnya setelah itu membelit dan meghimpit hifa inang  dengan membentuk struktur kait (hook-like structure), mikroparasit ini juga kadang menetrasi miselium inang dengan cara mendegradasi sebagian sel inang. Disimpulkan bahwa jamur Trichoderma, sp. memiliki kemampuan berkompetisi yang baik dengan patogen Colletotrichum, sp. dalam mendapatkan nitrogen dan karbon.

Melihat daya hambat pertumbuhan jamur patogen, Trichoderma, sp. dipercaya berperan dalam mengendalikan penyakit tanaman akibat patogen dan layak untuk dikembangkan sebagai sumber bahan pengendali penyakit tanaman.

 

*LEO*

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